Cardiovascular Diseases in Australia Aboriginal Population

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Cardiovascular Diseases in Australian Aboriginal population—The association hypertension, smoking, and obesity in the development of heart failure

Cardiovascular systems involve heart and blood vessels. This is the vital system that is responsible for pumping blood to vital organs of the body, including the lungs where the carbon dioxide is replaced by oxygen. The oxygenated blood is pumped into the systemic circulation and receives unoxygenated blood that is again pumped towards the lung for the same motto (Ponikowski et al., 2014). Pathology of cardiovascular systems involves the pathology of heart and blood vessels that usually compromises the function of the cardiovascular system, which is to pump blood to different parts of the body (Kachur et al., 2017). Some of the pathologies are arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases (acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction), stroke, hypertension, and valvular heart diseases, etc. The etiologies of all these lousy health conditions involving cardiovascular systems are interrelated (Nordahl et al., 2014). In the Australian population, the prevalence of heart diseases in the indigenous population is greater than the emigrants. Several factors have been reported for causing this. This gap is reported to be caused by modifiable risk factors (Zhao & Dempsey, 2006). A few of these factors are the genetic propensity to develop heart diseases, lack of enough physical activity, and smoking (Amiri et al., 2019). Ethnicity plays a part as far as the prevalence of cardiovascular ailments in the Australian population is concerned. All of these risk factors are points of concern for the healthcare teams, and constant heed should be paid to get rid of the imminent propensity to become a victim of cardiovascular disease if you are an Australian aboriginal (Skilton et al., 2011).

Hypertension is a malignant disorder involving the whole of the vascular system. This increases the risk of arterial rupture, arteriosclerosis, fibrinoid necrosis of the vessels, vision loss, stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. While obesity, aging, worries, high salt intake, diabetes, and male gender increases the risk of development of hypertension (Taylor et al., 2011). Smoking exposes the human body to several chemicals that enhance the chances of development of hypertension, blood clotting, hypoxia to the heart muscle, and heart attack, etc. Over-weight, increased body-mass index, and obesity markedly increases the risk of the propensity to develop cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension (Amiri et al., 2019). The close relationship between the etiologies of these diseases lay the foundation for the development of the other cardiovascular condition in the presence of the one. The propensity to develop heart and vessel disorders multiplies in the existence of comorbid conditions. If hypertension exists in a patient already overweight, the risk of development of high-risk diseases like ischemic heart disease and diabetes increases to many folds (Ettehad et al., 2018). Obesity leads to the early onset of diabetes mellitus that, in turn, increases the risk of hypertension, hypercoagulability, clot formation, atherosclerosis, and atherosclerosis. These microangiopathies, combined with 0macroangipahties, precipitate the formation of clots in major blood vessels in the heart and brain, leading to stroke, angina, and myocardial infarction. Ischemia of the myocardium leads to the necrosis of heart tissue. Death of heart muscle cells ensues fibrosis. The heart muscle and tissue get fibrosed, and pumping of the heart is significantly compromised, leading to heart failure (Nordahl et al., 2014). 

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