The technology of Radio Frequency has been present around since Second World War, at time when Allied Forces initially utilized the technology to recognize friendly air plane. Currently this technology is employed for mobile devices, animal tracking, and fuel pump key fobs, wild and domestic animal tracking as well as several other uses. Radio Frequency Identification is an evolving technology that has been progressively utilized in supply chain management and logistics in recent times (NIEDERMAN et al., 2007). This technology can recognize, categorize, and handle the flow of goods and data throughout a supply chain. It presents the capacity to highly enhance supply chain performance because of its potential to offer affluent and timely data that raises control and visibility over the supply chain. Implementations of RFID in supply chain have raised (Angeles, 2012).
Adequate experimental proves is documented for utilizing supply chain management for efficient distribution and allocation. Nevertheless, literature on implementations of RFID is finely documented in the experimental researches (Mall and Mishra, 2012). RFID technology has been capable to improve support supply chain management attempts. The future effectiveness of RFID and other smart services will be highly impacted by the skill of businesses to present the right services and products to customers. RFID has the skill in other regions of operations, like manufacturing, total product life cycle management, after-sales service support. An RFID mechanism can be utilized to recognize several forms of objects, like manufactured animals, goods, and individual. RFID technologies help an extensive range of implementations—everything from resource management and controlling to manufactured goods and associated consumer services to access regulations and automated purchases. Every RFID mechanism has varied elements and personalization’s so that it can help a specific business procedure for a company. Relying on the implementation in a company and the organization within a company, a RFID mechanism can be highly multifaceted, and its executions may differ highly. Ideally, RFID mechanism may be comprised of subsystems (Irani, Gunasekaran and Dwivedi, 2010). An RIFD subsystem which words identification and pertinent transactions utilizing wireless interact. A company subsystem, which persists computers running particular software that can record, procedure, and evaluate information acquainted from RF subsystem dealings to make the information useful to a helpful business procedure, and an inter-company subsystem, which links company subsystems when data requires to be shared throughout organizational limits (Asif and Mandviwalla, 2005). Every RFID mechanism has an RF subsystem, which is comprised of readers and tags. In several RFID mechanisms, the RF subsystems are helped by a company subsystem that is comprised of middleware, networking services, and analytic services. Nevertheless, in a supply chain implementation, a tagged good is monitored throughout its life cycle, from the production to final purchase, and sometimes even ahead (like to help targeted goods recalls or associated service), and therefore its RFID mechanism has to share data throughout organizational limits. Therefore, the RFID mechanisms helping supply chain implementations have also an inter-company subsystem. The company’s subsystem is the software and computer system that uses information restored on RFID tags (D’Mello et al., 2008).
It is the bond that incorporates an RFID system. Relying on the context of the industry, however normally a front end element handles the readers and the middleware part and antenna routes this data to servers that operate the fundamental database jobs. As an example, in a context of manufacturing, the company application will require to be made acknowledged of RFID at several stages relying on how far downstream into manufacturing and external into the supply chain RFID is executed (Asif and Mandviwalla, 2005). The middleware techniques are segmented into three segments: software applications which resolve issues with connectivity and checking in particular vertical regions, application executives that link separate applications within a company, and device brokers that link applications to gadgets such as shop floor systems and RFID readers. A software named ‘Savant’, developed by Auto ID Centre, MIT is destined to handle the huge bulk of information predicted to be created by RFID readers. For example, in a typical context of manufacturing, readers will be taking up a persistent array of tag information, which might have mistakes like duplicate and phantom reads. The feature of a savant application is to monitor and handle this information and forward data which is clean (Borriello, 2005).
Restrictions on employment
In Australia, the common law doctrine of restraint of trade applies to restrictions on employment.
The doctrine requires that for any such restriction to be legally enforceable, it should be reasonable for the parties and for the general public. A legitimate interest should be at stake, and the restraint should be limited to protecting that particular interest (Australian Competition Law, 2014).
Consequently, restraints of trade are usually an exception to the judicial policy of free trade. However, legitimate business interests of employers are protected.
In determining what is legitimate in protecting confidential information it must meet certain criteria.
In Corrs Pavey Whiting &Byrne v Collector of Customs (Vic) (1987) 14 FCR 434 at 443 Cummow J said:
“the plaintiff (i) must be able to identify with specificity, and not merely in global terms, that which is said to be the information in question: and must be able to show that (ii) the information has the necessary quality of confidentiality (i.e not common knowledge) ; (iii) the information was received by the defendant in such circumstances as to import an obligation of confidence; and (iv) there is actual or threatened misuse of that information.”
In this situation client lists qualify as a type of confidential information that is classified as the employer’s property, which is protected by common law.
The employment contract in modern Australia which involves the commercial relationship between an employer and employee, is the modern equivalent of the Masters and Servants Act 1842 (UK).
A servant must work in the interests of their Master (employer) and has a duty of care to not put the master at disrepute or harm the interests of their master. (Price & Neilsen, 2012) While the employee is in service of employment to their employer, they must honour the implied duty of fidelity, which is to not use confidential information to make secret profits, not defame the company’s reputation, or to work against the interests of their employer, such as giving confidential information to competitors, which can affect the employer’s competitive position and profits. (Price & Neilsen, 2012).
The case of Lindner v Murdock’s Garage  HCA 48 introduced the notion that contractually, employers can ask for their employees to be restrained from working in the profession with the same interests for a time period after their employment is terminated.
In this case, the former employer had a clause in their contract to not conduct a similar business in the same area for a period of one year after termination.
Subsequently, the court found the clause in the contract unenforceable as they thought it went beyond what was reasonable protection of the business. The clause in the employment contract therefore must be reasonable to be enforceable.
This implied term also extends to post employment situations, where confidential information is not to be used to the purpose of gaining economic benefit in either self-employment or in employment to a competitor. (Price et al. 2012). This is because when the person in question signed their name in employment to the employer, they then have a duty of fidelity to their employer, even if it is not mentioned in policy, or even if the person had not read the policy before signing the contract. This means the employee must not disclose or use confidential information, not make secret profits or steal from the employer.
This is partly because the employer is the one who puts the employee in contact with the customer. The brand or reputation of the employer is also an influencing factor in the employee’s relationship with the customers. On the other hand, the employees own skills and personal knowledge (e.g. talent, creativity and intuition) are difficult to restrain. For example, the influence that an employee is able to exert over the customers could be a personal talent, e.g. relation building skills. This ‘asset’ cannot be attributed to the employer. It is not so easy to demarcate the two types of knowledge because they are interlinked, and they influence the learnings by the employee (Arup, 2012).
However, employees can be restrained from soliciting those specific clients with whom they have worked while being part of the organisation e.g. Stacks/Taree Pty Ltd v Marshall [No 2]  NSWSC 77. This is perhaps because employee’s insights about such customers can be more easily attributed to the employer. Again, exceptions may be in order if the customers have been acquired by the employee due to his personal contacts. However, if the employee is actually known to use any particular information gained in an employment after he leaves the organisation, the employer’s claims for restraint or damages gain strength.
Viewed from another perspective, restraint may not be applicable if a customer follows an employee and initiates contact with him on his own volition (Arup, 2012).
Furthermore, the usefulness or novelty of the information, and the difficulty in its acquisition or replication is an important factor in determining the duration of the restraint.
Duration of restraint can be determined by how long it takes for that information to lose its currency. In this case the address book could be used to update address changes of the clients, which means the currency of information would unlikely lose little or no value over a long period of time. (Arup, 2012)
Also this is explicit, tangible information which can be transferred to new employees replacing old employees, not intangible information recalled by the former employee, which could be lost to memory over time.
However some knowledge is not considered explicit but is relationship based knowledge, which is made known through intimacy with clients.
Firm or industry specific characteristics are important and need to be factored in determining duration of injunction, if a duration is determined. (Arup, 2012).
IT strategy is a term that is casually mentioned these days, and quite often it is misquoted. In the strictest sense, a process that aligns IT capability with business requirements is called IT strategy. As it is after all a process, it remains an ongoing exercise and may be constantly changed or updated. In fact, in order to be successful, some IT strategies can go through a long cycle of trial and tribulations and start stop approaches, until the right one is finally identified. Also important is to make sure that business requirements and IT capability are aligned. What this entails is that IT not only addresses the needs of a business as they arise; but also it is responsible for driving the business forward as well. What IT strategy is, is a comprehensive plan for developing IT capabilities, which are then used to further guide the running of the company.
IT strategy is concerned mainly with technology policies, and outlining the vision of how the demand an organization has for information and systems will be supported by technology – essentially; it is concerned with IT supply. It addresses the supply of IT capabilities, services and resources such as developments of system, IT operations and user support (Ward, 2002). In essence, IT strategy basically deals with the methods which are preferred, level of security, mandated systems, platforms and applications, the facts about how information is provided. Hence it is concerned with the technological infrastructure that is necessary to fulfill all the requirements of the information strategy.
IT strategy can best be described as an iterative process involving technology that is used to align the IT capabilities with the business concerns. IT strategy is mainly used to enhance shareholder value which in other words can be stated as helping in maximizing the return on the investments made by the Company on information technology (Cio-Index, 2009).
IT Strategy can also be expressed in documentary from so that it explains how technology can be used as part of the company’s overall strategy and each business strategy. In the case of Information Technology, the strategy is usually formed by a group of members from both the business and from IT.
A well deployed IT strategy, which provides actual benefits to the company has multiple components, the most important of which is people. Having the right number of and the right type of people is essential to having a successful IT strategy. Another factor is culture, which directly impacts the level with which the IT strategy affects the company (Zaki, 2011).
In last few years the concept of leadership has gained a great deal of attention around the world, many universities and colleges are now offering leadership programs for youngster in order to help them in becoming an ethical leader. From a moral point of view the role of organizational leaders have ethical implications beyond their public life. In simple terms the meaning of leadership highly depends on the kind of institution in which it is found. Leadership also brings with it a responsibility to ensure that other people who are working in the organization should and must realize their obligations as well. In last few years many corporate leaders have began to consider a more ethical model, mainly because of various obvious factors. Various ethical concerns have been raised on many occasions related to social and policy changes in last two decades. People and institutions in power always takes the crown and amend values accordingly. (more…)
In recent years the ideas and suggestions about leaders have changed drastically. What used to be expected from a leader, now sub ordinates don’t have same expectations from them in terms of their roles and duties. With the emergence of technology and other advancement in communication, leadership styles and skills are no more the same. The training methods used by leaders are more casual and conducted in a friendly environment, as now the leaders have to engage them selves more, have to lead their teams by example and they not only have to manage their teams but also have to make sure that they have the support of their subordinates. People have different views about leadership styles and how they acquired different skills and react to different situations which they are faced with. (more…)
Is business bluffing ethical or not is still a long debate with many different opinions. Business leaders and other organization in power can amend any rules and ethics of business with their power, many believe that deception in business is justifiable on the grounds that business has a character of game. Majority of the advertising and marketing firms are the biggest bluffer in business as they are somehow link with business bluffing. (more…)
Over the last few year many corporations have been outsourcing their daily routine work in order to cut costs associated with their day to day operations, now the trend has just grown on to the next level as many individuals in western countries are outsourcing their jobs to other developing countries like India, China, Bangladesh, the list goes on. Due to the big difference in the currency rates it allows individuals to outsource their daily office work to employees in other countries so that they can enjoy their time in other activities. (more…)
Should business play a role in supporting public institutions, and perhaps addressing the world’s social challenges?
When Harvard Professor Rebecca Henderson asked her colleagues and business executives that question over the last few years, the reaction was often rather skeptical. Many believe this is not what business does or should do, Henderson said.
If managers can support public institutions and provide public goods and make money, why aren’t they?
“They say the answer is regulation or the answer is taxation,” said Henderson. “The idea that firms can set themselves up for public good is viewed with suspicion—in my view for very good reasons.” (more…)