IoT on Sustainability

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1. INTRODUCTION

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a global infrastructure network which enables advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and emerging interoperable information and communication technologies. The IoT, using sensing and networking technologies, allows stuff to meet various types of client needs while maintaining protection and privacy (Salam, 2020).

It is estimated that by 2050, almost two-thirds of the world’s population will be living in urban cities. The "Internet of Things" (IoT)—are physical devices embedded with software, sensors, and network connectivity— and are poised to play a vital role in creating sustainable and inclusive urban environment management (Nonnecke, Bruch, & Crittenden, 2016). Internet of things can provide real time data collection on all sorts of data such as use of energy or water resources, aiding to better regulate and conserve resources. 

Walt Mossberg (2014) has described the IoT as a “constellation of inanimate objects [that] is being designed with built-in wireless connectivity, so that they can be monitored, controlled and linked over the Internet” (cited in Cha 2015). The IoT “refers to the connection of everyday objects to the Internet and to one another, with the goal being to provide users with smarter, more efficient experiences” (Cha 2015) (Simon, 2017).

IoT can be regarded as an internet revolution which is redesigning our future prospects and bringing forth unparalleled opportunities. The IoT has declared "smart" living and is changing every part of daily life, business and economy. Internet access is also being integrated into a broad variety of non-computer products, including kitchen and home appliances, lighting and heating equipment, and car-monitoring systems provided by insurance agencies. These devices include three essential components: an Internet link, either in the system itself or at a base station; a remote sensor to capture incoming data; and a processor, like any computing unit. However, as the IoT industry grows, the threat environment is also dramatically shifting, growing security issues surrounding information technology. (Simon, 2017) In conjunction, IoT apps gather large volumes of data and are often installed in public services, making them prime targets for hackers. Moreover, the lack of standardized system and application interoperability requirements will lead to redundancies, inefficiencies and information silos (Nonnecke, Bruch, & Crittenden, 2016).

1.1 Current Status of IoT

Although IoT is already quite pervasive in our society, the combined economic value of the industrial IoT is yet still to keep growing along with public and consumer sector likely to reach more than $15 trillion by 2030 (Salam, 2020).

Additionally technologies such as smart homes and building management systems are steadily becoming more mainstream, however there is still a lot groundwork to be done especially regarding public buildings and the educational sector before IoT can introduce pervasive computing in our daily lives. (Amaxilatis, et al., 2015)

The demand for many resources keep on increasing over the past years, such as the demand and consumption of energy due to a range of new technologies.  These include but aren't restricted to the increasing number of electrical vehicle sales by 128% from 2012 to 2014 within the u. s., and it's estimated that annual sales could grow by 400% by 2024, putting 860,000 new EVs on the road (Institute for Sustainable Communities, 2015). While the first virtue of the “smart grid” lies in additional effective management of electrical utilities, IoT technologies offer opportunities for increased energy efficiency via both capture and conservation at two points: generation (green energy/renewables at the systems-level) and consumption (consumer-level) (Nonnecke, Bruch, & Crittenden, 2016).

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