Primary Health Care in Australia

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The world health organization describes primary health care as a well-focused approach to managing health determinants and reflects on an inclusive interconnected dimension of overall well-being. Primary health care is the first level of patient care. A Strategy is a plan detailing the vision, goals, and way to proceed with a country to preserve and enhance its citizen’s health status ((Halcomb, Stephens, Bryce, Foley, & Ashley, 2016).). Primary health services should be viewed as both a solution to a health concern faced by community members, as well as a degree of service delivery to community residents. It comes from a wide variety of programs that include health promotion, disease prevention, diagnosis, and chronic illness management. Each individual has the right to good health and wellbeing comes from Article 25 of the universal declaration of human rights (Issel & Wells, 2017). 

In a study by McCarthy, Cornally, Moran, & Courtney (2012) they stated that given its relevance to policymakers and more than 30 years of current topic research, the idea of access to healthcare has long been poorly established, without a strong consensus on its interpretation in literature and not a widely agreed way. The meaning and scope of health care itself are issues that have to be discussed in any examination of the concept of access to health care. Alternatively, health care has been used to refer primarily to medical treatment; to a wider spectrum of medical services and secondary non-medical services, from primary care and prevention services to hospital-based tertiary services (Hurley, Baum, Johns, & Labonte, 2010).

There are three types of care programs worldwide: the model for the welfare state, the market model and a combination of the welfare state and the consumer model – the hybrid one. Healthcare is funded by tax funds under the welfare state model, where the government claims sole responsibility for delivering healthcare facilities. Under a market system, it is up to ordinary residents and private institutions to pick and pay for health care. Under a mixed scheme, the state has universal medical benefits so residents can receive private health care in addition to public insurance (Dixit & Sambasivan, 2018).

Australia's health program is a mixed model where Australians, permanent residents, and immigrants can purchase private policies in addition to their current public policies to have access to private as well as public hospitals (Dixit & Sambasivan, 2018). Australia's health infrastructure is regulated by clinics and emergency care services, but it has attracted long-needed criticism since the primary health care field. The publication of the first comprehensive primary health care plan, which acknowledged that for most Australians, primary health care centred in the community is the frontline of health care. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare has since developed a series of data drive reports which record health system performance against key indicators (Willis, Reynolds, Keleher, (Eds.), 2012). 


The objective of the study are as follows; 

  • To assess Primary health care in Australia. 
  • To review the researches concerning primary healthcare in Australia. 
  • To discuss the causes and provide a recommendation to overcome challenges in primary healthcare in Australia. 


The research has used a qualitative research design for analysis of primary healthcare in Australia. It used the methods guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). For the systematic review, different researches are gathered ranging from 2010 to 2020 (10 years). 

Search strategy and data extraction

The study was focused to research the literature which reviews the primary health care of Australia and its constantly changing structure. To determine this the search strategy used keywords like Australia, Health Care, Primary health care, Systematic Review, Challenges. The data was extracted from sources like Google Scholar and PubMed. There were 360 articles on google scholar which were identified, as this was wide-spread combinations of several keywords and modifications were done for more focused research.

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